Sometimes, you just need to move a firearm from point A to point B. You want to do it legally but also want to do it easily, without a bunch of hassles.
You can do it, but fair warning, mailing a firearm comes with caveats and considerations.
After all, you must comply with federal, state, and local laws.
And even those can vary according to what you’re shipping and its destination. To make it a bit more challenging, carriers have their own policies as well.
It doesn’t have to be a nightmare, though…which is why you have us.
Today, we’re going to walk you through the ins and outs of mailing guns. From how to ship them to which carriers are the best, we’ll arm you with the knowledge you need to get guns from one location to another.
Before we dive in, let’s do a quick disclaimer: We are not legal professionals, and this article should not be substituted for actual legal advice. Because laws vary and change often, please consult a firearms attorney about the legalities of shipping firearms prior to doing so.
Updated with new guidelines 6.5.2023 at 10:01 a.m. CDT.
Table of Contents
Federal Firearms License
What does a Federal Firearms License have to do with mailing a firearm?
Individuals who sell, manufacture, import, or repair firearms — also known as dealers — are required to hold an FFL.
The FFL establishes that the person holding the license operates a legitimate, lawful business registered and in compliance with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives.
An FFL not only allows the licensee to operate their firearms-related business but also to ship and receive firearms in accordance with federal, state, and local laws.
(Want to get your own FFL, check out our article on how to do so here!)
Shipping Firearms Without an FFL
For those of us who do not hold an FFL but want to mail a firearm, the ATF terms us as nonlicensees.
As a nonlicensee under basic federal law, your ability to mail a firearm through the U.S. Postal Service without the involvement of an FFL is limited:
- You can ship a firearm to yourself in a state where you plan “to hunt or engage in any other lawful activity.” You must address it to yourself “in care of” the out-of-state resident. Once it arrives, no one but you can take possession of or open the package, so you must be at the destination to receive it.
- You can ship a firearm to another nonlicensed person in your state. While the post office will allow nonlicensees to mail long guns to other nonlicensees in the same state, it restricts its services for handguns and pistols to FFL holders. Nonlicensees who want to ship a handgun are limited to contract carriers, which require you ship the gun to or through an FFL holder.
- You can ship a firearm to a person in another state only if you ship through an FFL to an FFL holder in the destination state. That is, if you wish to transfer a firearm to a nonlicensee who resides in another state, you must head to a local FFF and have them ship the gun to another FFL in the recipient’s state. The FFL holder will release the firearm to the person once they’ve completed the ATF Form 4473 and NICS background check. Even if you are shipping a gun for repair, if your gunsmith is out-of-state, it’s gotta go through an FFL, and the gunsmith must either hold an FFL themselves or receive your gun through someone who does.
Shipping Firearms Responsibly
Federal law allows you to transfer firearms to another person living within your state of residence.
However, the law also stipulates that you cannot knowingly provide a gun to someone who is prohibited from “receiving or possessing” one.
Current federal law prohibits felons, abusers, violent offenders, and those that have been “adjudicated as a mental defective or been committed to any mental institution” from possessing ammunition and firearms. But some states go further into their definitions, so it’s important to check your local laws.
Several states require some type of background check, permit or license for firearms that in many cases must go through an FFL or state agency.
In some cases, no transfer can occur until the firearm recipient supplies proof that they can legally receive the gun.
As with most gun-related issues, states run the gamut.
In addition, states determine what types of firearms and ammo they’ll allow.
Georgia, Indiana, and Kentucky have no state limitations on firearms classified as assault weapons.
On the other hand, California, Maryland, and Massachusetts ban certain weapons by feature. Those same states often limit magazine capacities.
As well as complying with all state laws, you’ll need to heed local ones as well. For example, urban areas battling high crime rates often restrict the types of firearms permitted within their city limits.
Ultimately, what you need to do depends on the exact address of where the firearm is heading.
While sifting through the gritty details can be frustrating, getting it wrong can result in a seized weapon and some really stressful encounters with law enforcement.
Packing a Firearm for Shipping
Laws govern how you must pack a gun for shipping.
The idea is to pack them so that no one has any idea that a gun is inside and so it arrives safely and intact.
- Choose a large, strong box with plenty of room for packing material to cushion the firearm. UPS, for example, mandates new, corrugated packaging that meets its single-wall strength guidelines.
- Ensure that the exterior of the box gives no obvious indication of the firearm within. Federal law prohibits markings that indicate that the box contains a firearm. Plus, you don’t want to tempt any potential gun thieves.
- Do not include any ammunition. Ammunition has its own set of rules, and it must travel as a separate parcel.
- Pack the firearm securely. The box should feel solid, with no rattling or shifting. Shoddily packed rifles have been known to arrive at their destination with the barrel or bolt protruding, damaged buttstock, or worse…torn open and at the mercy of strangers and the elements. Bubble wrap, pool noodles, Styrofoam, sturdy packing paper, and wide tape are must-haves. You should insure the contents, but poor packaging can void your claim.
Shipping a Firearm
A number of carriers ship firearms, and each has its own requirements. Always check your chosen carrier’s website for the latest policies or changes.
Here are the current policies for the big three — USPS, UPS, and FedEx. A quick look will confirm that each has its own plan of action.
Nonlicensed individuals cannot ship handguns or other “firearms capable of being concealed on the person.” Even if you’re shipping the handgun to an FFL holder, you will have to ship it through your local FFL by contract carrier. The USPS will ship handguns only for official government, military, and law enforcement agencies.
That said, long guns can be shipped by nonlicenseees to a resident in the same state, per the ATF. If it’s going out of state, though, it has to go through an FFL. You can also mail long guns to yourself outside your state of residence for hunting purposes.
According to the USPS guidelines for nonlicensees, “all regulated firearms must be mailed using a USPS product or Extra Service that provides tracking and signature capture at delivery.”
While UPS is often cited as a viable contract carrier for firearms, it isn’t really an option for a nonlicensed person to ship a firearm to another nonlicensed person…even if you are shipping in-state.
UPS specifies that it accepts packages for transportation only between FFL holders. That means you have to find a local FFL to ship the gun to another FFL.
As of summer 2022, UPS will no longer accept any firearms, frames, receivers, or partially complete or disassembled receivers unless they are serialized in accordance with the new federal guidelines.
This directly affects customers who are looking to purchase or ship 80% frames and receivers. You can read our full article on the UPS policy change here.
FedEx ships firearms only for those holding a Federal Firearms License (FFL) and/or federal, state, or local government agencies.
In January 2022, the shipping company updated its policies to disallow non-licensees from shipping firearms.
If you were wondering, DHL ships firearms “only from and to licensed dealers.”
It won’t even ship paintball or pellet guns or gun parts for a nonlicensee, and it won’t include firearms in a move of household goods.
Regardless of which carrier ships your firearm, all require that you:
- Alert the carrier that your package contains a firearm.
- Present appropriate personal identification and paperwork. This includes documentation proving your age as well as your recipient’s suitability or license to receive the firearm.
- Ship ammunition separately from the firearm. Ammunition is considered an explosive.
- Ensure that the firearm is not loaded. The carrier may request that you open the package to ensure that the weapon is unloaded and that it falls within the shipper’s guidelines.
- Present your package in person. You cannot use drop boxes or third-party shipping centers, for example.
- Include appropriate paperwork if you’re shipping the firearm to an FFL holder. They will need documentation for their records, which can vary by state and locale.
By the Way…
If you’re thinking of shipping a gun disassembled or piecemeal in separate packages to be reunited at the destination, you might want to reconsider.
ATF specifically states that “rendering a firearm unserviceable does not remove it from the definition of an NFA firearm.”
In addition, frames, receivers, suppressors, and destructive devices are all considered firearms.
As for international shipping, according to the ATF, that exists in the realm of FFL holders:
- “A licensee [without an importer’s license] may make an occasional importation of a firearm for a nonlicensee or for the licensee’s personal use (not for resale).”
- In most cases, exporting a firearm requires a license issued by the U.S. Department of State’s Directorate of Defense Trade Controls.
- Exporting sporting shotguns also requires licensing through the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Bureau of Industry and Security.
- Exporting NFA firearms requires the approval of an ATF Form 9, Application and Permit for Permanent Exportation of Firearms.
We’ve covered a number of ways you can legally ship firearms but keep in mind there is a patchwork map of laws to contend with so just take the easy route and ship via FFL.
They may charge a fee for their services, but you’re paying for more than simple transportation.
You’re paying them to keep the entire transaction legal so that you can continue to enjoy all the rights and responsibilities of gun ownership.
Have you ever shipped a gun? Tell us about your experience in the comments below. If you’re looking at flying…check out our guide to Flying with Firearms.
Read the full article here